2024年6月20日 星期四
日本校园欺凌的基本特点与应对策略研究
A Study on the Basic Characteristics and Coping Strategies of Bullying in Japanese School
摘要

放眼全球, 校园欺凌已经成为不同国家严重的教育问题和社会问题。日本在校园欺凌应对上形成了有本国特色的应对体系。在回顾不同时期日本欺凌定义和校园欺凌应对措施的基础上, 研究以日本文部科学省2022年校园欺凌调查结果为中心, 基于2022年日本文部科学省和总务省公布的数据为依据, 以“提前预防、早期发现、早期应对、重大事件应对”为中心, 从国家和学校两个层面阐述在这四个方面的应对。研究结果表明, 日本校园欺凌日益普遍化、严重化, 校园欺凌的群体有低龄化趋势, 非暴力的心理伤害是校园欺凌的主要类型, 校园欺凌的方式趋向隐蔽化, 网络欺凌有愈发严重的趋势。当前的日本校园欺凌应对强调从小学开始加强欺凌预防教育, 有加强学校 (或班级) 内人际关系教育和集体规范意识的倾向。具体的校园欺凌应对措施由早期预防、早期发现、早期应对、重大事件应对四个部分构成。发挥国家, 地区公共团体, 学校等机构的作用, 是正确应对校园欺凌事件的重要方式。其中, 特别强调早期发现和早期应对, 并针对重大校园欺凌事件采取特别应对。

Abstract

Globally, school bullying has become a serious educational and social problem in different countries. Japan has developed a response system with its own characteristics in dealing with bullying in schools. Based on a review of the definitions of bullying and school bullying response measures in Japan at different times, the study is centered on the results of the 2022 survey on bullying in schools conducted by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) of Japan and based on the data published by MEXT and the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (MIC) in 2022, the study focuses on "early prevention, early detection, early response and response to major incidents", and describes responses in these four aspects at both the national and school levels. The results of the study show that bullying in Japanese schools is becoming more prevalent and serious, the group of school bullying tends to be younger, non-violent psychological harm is the main type of school bullying, and methods of school bullying tend to be more covert, and cyber bullying tends to be more serious. The current response to bullying in schools in Japan emphasizes the strengthening of bullying prevention education from primary school onwards, with a tendency to strengthen education on interpersonal relationships and awareness of collective norms within the school (or classroom) . The specific response to school bullying consists of four components: early prevention, early detection, early response, and response to major incidents. Utilizing the role of the state, regional public bodies, schools, and other institutions is an important way to respond properly to incidents of bullying in schools. Among them, particular emphasis is placed on early detection and early response, and a special response to major incidents of school bullying.  

DOI10.48014/pcp.20230422001
文章类型研究性论文
收稿日期2023-05-14
接收日期2023-08-05
出版日期2023-09-28
关键词日本中小学, 校园欺凌, 应对策略
KeywordsJapanese primary and secondary schools, school bullying, coping strategy
作者毋翠玲, 和小军*
AuthorWU Cuiling, HE Xiaojun*
所在单位玉林师范学院教育科学学院, 玉林 537000
CompanySchool of Educational Science, Yulin Normal University, Yulin 53700, China
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基金项目广西教育科学“十四五”规划2022年度广西教育科学重点研究基地重大课题“广西全科教师职业身份认同的质性研究”(2022JD05);
2022年度玉林师范学院高层次人才科研项目“小学优秀教师教学应变能力特征及其形成机制的质性研究”(G2022SK05);
2022年广西高等教育本科教学改革工程项目“基于‘两性一度’的线上线下混合式小学数学教学论‘一流课程’研究与实践”(2022JGA300)。
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引用本文毋翠玲, 和小军. 日本校园欺凌的基本特点与应对策略研究[J]. 中国教育科学进展, 2023, 2(3): 50-62.
CitationWU Cuiling, HE Xiaojun. A study on the basic characteristics and coping strategies of bullying in Japanese schools[J]. Progress of Chinese Pedagogy, 2023, 2(3): 50-62.